Cotton is the most widely used natural cellulosic fibre in the world.

It is used in manufacturing of apparels, home furnishings and industrial fabrics. The main advantage of cotton fibre is its ability to provide comfort by absorption of moisture and its better strength at wet condition. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes. The leading producers of cotton across the world are India, United States, China, Brazil and Pakistan.


Being a natural fibre, greige cotton fibres contain primary impurities which come during harvesting and secondary impurities that are added during spinning, weaving and knitting processes. It is essential to remove such impurities in order to make the fibre suitable for subsequent dyeing or printing. A series of preparatory cleaning operations for removal of these impurities is known as pretreatment.

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Dyeing is the application process of colours (in form of dye or pigment) to textile substrates. It is normally done in a special solution containing colour and certain auxiliaries. Colour molecules are fixed to fibre by adsorption (transfer of colour from solution to fibre), diffusion (penetration of colour into fibre) and fixation (bond formation between colour and fibre). A bright appearance with uniform effect and desired fastness are primary requirements for dyeing.

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Finishing process is carried out to improve the natural properties and attractiveness of the textile substrates. Aesthetic finishing will improve the handle and feel, change the texture of surface, provide aesthetic value, wash care, modify the drape and enhance the durability of textile materials. There are certain specialty functional finishes also which attribute to improve a particular property of textile substrates like flame retardant, anti-microbial or water and oil repellent.

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